University of California, Berkeley

The University of California, Berkeley, also called Berkeley, UC Berkeley, and Cal is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. Founded in 1868, Berkeley is the oldest of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system, and is frequently cited as the top public university in the United States and around the globe. Established in 1868 as the result of the merger of the private College of California and the public farming, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College in Oakland, Berkeley offers roughly 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a large range of disciplines. The Dwinelle Bill of March 5, 1868 California Assembly Bill No. 583 stated that the "University shall have for its design, to offer instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and profession pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions...." Cal co manages three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories, as well as Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy, and is home to many world renowned research institutes and organizations as well as Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Berkeley faculty, alumni, and researchers have won 92 Nobel Prizes as well as 32 alumni Nobel laureates, nine Wolf Prizes, 13 Fields Medals as well as three alumni medalists, 22 Turing Awards as well as eleven alumni awardees, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 117 Olympic gold medals 51 silver and 39 bronze. To date, with Berkeley Lab, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers discovered 16 chemical elements of the regular table more than any other university in the world. Lawrence Livermore Lab also discovered or co discovered six chemical elements 113 to 118. Berkeley is a founding member of the affiliation of American Universities and continues to have high research activity with $744 million in research and development spendings in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2014. Berkeley is regarded as by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as one of six university brands that lead in world repute rankings in 2016 and is ranked 3rd on the U.S. News' 2015 Best world Universities rankings conducted in the U.S. And almost 50 other countries. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU also ranks the University of California, Berkeley, 3rd in the world in general, and 1st among public universities. In 1866, the private College of California bought the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Because it lacked enough money to operate, it sooner or later merged with the state run farming, Mining, and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the 1st full curriculum public university in the state. Ten faculty members and nearly 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869. Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the 1st president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley place with 167 male and 22 female students and held its 1st classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made some number of big gifts to Berkeley, financial support some programs and new buildings, and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, Belgium, where French architect mile Bnard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm has been established near Sacramento, finally becoming the University of California, Davis. By the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown considerably, and included twenty structures intended by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. UC Berkeley Students partake in a one day Peace Strike opposing U.S. Involvement in World War II. April 19, 1940 throughout World War II, following Glenn Seaborg's then secret finding of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory started to contract with the U.S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer has been named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory previously the Radiation Lab, Berkeley is a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory 1943 and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 1952. Originally, military training was mandatory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that function. In 1917, Berkeley's ROTC program has been established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, as well as Jimmy Doolittle, who graduated with a B.A. In 1922. Both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeley's ROTC program, earning B.A. Degrees in 1937 and 1938, in that order. In 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the 1st Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. throughout World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944, more than 1,000 Berkeley students were enrolled in the V-12 Navy College Training Program and naval training school for diesel engineering. The Board of Regents ended mandatory military training at Berkeley in 1962. throughout the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti communist loyalty oath. some faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay. In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given relative autonomy and own Chancellor. Then president Sproul expected presidency of the complete University of California system, and Clark Kerr became the 1st Chancellor of UC Berkeley. Sather Tower the Campanile looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. Berkeley gained a repute for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech motion of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the greatly publicized People's Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, the National Guard has been called in and violence erupted. Then governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus "a haven for communist supporters, protesters, and sex deviants." Modern students at Berkeley are less politically active, with a greater of moderates and conservatives. Democrats outnumber Republicans on the faculty by a percentage of 9:1. Different human and animal rights groups conflicted with Berkeley. Native Americans conflicted with the school over repatriation of remains from the Phoebe A. Hearst Museum of Anthropology. Animal rights activists threatened faculty members using animals for research. The school's answer to tree sitters objecting construction caused controversy in the local community. On May 1, 2014, UC Berkeley has been named one of fifty five higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. The investigation comes after 31 female students made three federal complaints: 1st, a Clery Act complaint has been filed in May 2013, , then, after a lack of answer from the University, a second Clery Act Complaint and Title IX complaint were filed on February 26, 2014. Investigations continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non tenured staff.